Being "Armed" is a "State of Mind".
Defensive tools don't operate by themselves, your brain puts them into action.
Your brain is your weapon, everything else is a "force multiplier".
Avoiding confrontations usually is the wisest course of action.
Of course some confrontations can't be avoided.
In the event you do find yourself in a violent confrontation, if you have 3 seconds to turn things around, you will be lucky.
This means that you have to be able to block and attack, then turn around and go on offense and stop your attacker.
Violence is rarely the answer, but when it is the answer, it is the ONLY ANSWER!
Stopping a violent attack means you INJURE your attacker so they are unable to continue attacking you.
How do you instantly stop an attacker:
Psychological shock: You terrify them that they stop, back off, break off attack.
Physical shock: You injury them so they can't attack, example, broken joints, arms, dislocated joints, ruptured testicles, gouged eyes, crushed windpipes. etc.
Cardiac shock: You cause sudden blood pressure loss, knife or gunshot wound to heart or perforation of aorta.
Neurological shock: Injury to spine, brain.
When you look at self defense tools, you need to understand how they work, their strengths and weaknesses.
Where guns are not available, that is where we have to get resourceful.
Walking around in a "Situation Yellow" means that you are not only scanning for threats, but you are also scanning for improvised arms as well.
Learning some type of martial arts would be useful because that way you have something regardless of where you are.
There are "self defense" training programs, Krav Maga and/or various mixed martial arts training are among the most popular.
Hand to hand defense will be something that as our organization grows, we will have people who can evaluate and come up with training criteria.
Knives are great killing arms, but stopping power is limited.
Items such as Mace, Stun guns or tasters have limitations because they are not designed to "INJURY" you attackers.
However understanding the limitations means you can work them into a self defense program.
For example, if you spray someone in the face with mace, then you break one of their joints, that will pretty much end most attacks.
If you get trained, then you practice till you Master, then if you are attacked, go on offense:
Penetrate their space
Rotate away from their attack
Injure first target of opportunity and keep injuring, multiple hits
Anything worthwhile will require a commitment of time and money. To learn this stuff most of us need to actually take classes, you are not going to learn this from reading books or watching videos.
Enough said for now.